Digibus, Austria, national pilotVienna
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The Austrian flagship project “Digibus® Austria” pursues the goal to research and test methods, technologies and models for proofing a reliable and traffic-safe operation of automated shuttles on open roads in mixed traffic in a regional driving environment.
This pilot, operated by Fluidtime, is testing an electric shuttle on a fixed route which has two station based stops. The first aim of this project is to find out how automated vehicles can be integrated into regional mobility systems (e.g. passenger information, connection with other means of transport). The second aim is to find methods for passenger interaction in driverless operations (e.g. communication with a control station).
The Future Mobility Lab is in charge of multiple initiatives, of which five are active trials. Future Mobility Lab is conducting trials to gain a better understanding of the risks and opportunities for autonomous vehicles. They believe autonomous vehicles may contribute to creating a more efficient and people-centric public transport system, while improving mobility options and safety.
Autonobus was a pilot with a self-driving Navya shuttle bus which provides a last-mile mobility service at La Trobe University's Bundoora campus in Melbourne. The pilot was used to assess a self-driving shuttle bus as a potential last-mile mobility service in a real-world environment.
Curtin University’s bus is carrying out research in navigation satellite systems, road safety, sustainable transport systems and mobility options for people who are unable to drive.
The RAC intelli-bus is a driverless shuttle operating on the South Perth foreshore since August 2016, giving Western Australians the chance to experience driverless technology for themselves.
This pilot project is the first one of its kind in Brussels. The first phase of this project will consist of two shuttles following a fixed-route in a park that will run on Fridays and weekends. The Public Transport Operator (PTO) hopes to gain operational knowledge of this new technology during the one year lease of these shuttles.
This pilot at the VUB Health Campus in Brussels has 2 phases on 2 different trajectories. The first phase is running from August 2019 to November 2019, and is situated on private terrain. The second phase runs from December 2019 to March 2020, and is situated on public road. In both phases, the service is station-based with a fixed route.
ELA was the first Electric Autonomous Shuttle Experience open to the public in Calgary Canada. Operated by Pacific Western Transportation (PWT), ELA demonstrates the future of transportation.
The autonomous electric shuttle operates on Montcalm Boulevard on a 2km route between the park-and-ride lot/bus terminal and the city's Landmark Park at the other end of the boulevard. The City of Candiac puts great emphasis on sustainable development and mobility. This pilot is perfectly aligned with the city’s vision in terms of innovation and is at the heart of the 2014-2029 strategic plan.
ELA was the first Electric Autonomous Shuttle Experience open to the public in Calgary, Canada. The service was piloted in 4 different locations in Calgary, in the area of the city of Edmonton; Blatchford Chapelle Gardens, University of Alberta, and Blatchford Edmonton. The pilots took place from October 2018 until November 2018.
The city of Surrey hosted a pilot at the Surrey Civic Plaza that lasted for 17 days. This was part of the City of Surrey and City of Vancouver’s joint bid for Smart Cities Challenge. Surrey and Vancouver plan to implement Canada’s first two collision-free multi-modal transportation corridors by leveraging autonomous vehicles and smart technologies.
This pilot project from Public Transport Operator Transports Publics Fribourgeois (TPF) has been designed to be presented as an official line (line 100). These autonomous shuttles are a potential solution to the first/last mile problem while keeping costs low. The pilot in itself allows TPF to try out their autonomous shuttles, position themselves in the future of mobility, test the integration of the shuttle into the existing public transport network and study the users’ acceptance.
The Swiss Transit Lab Route 12 pilot, operated by the Public Transport Operator (PTO) Verkehrsbetriebe Schaffhausen (VBSH), provides a transport service all week. This initiative aims to offer mobility solutions to the first and last mile section of the trip.
The PostAuto SmartShuttle long term pilot is a first step to integrating self-driving buses in the public transportation system of Sion by 2020. The aim of this project is to test the integration of AVs in public transportation systems in order to eventually provide a first/last mile solution.
The Alphaba Smart Bus is a demo pilot running in open public road conditions with mixed traffic in Shenzhen. The overarching goal of this project is to develop and deploy AV smart technologies in a public bus operation. In order to do so, the pilot aims to demonstrate the feasibility of autonomous bus operations and to obtain running big data for continuous improvement.
e.GO Mobile is putting into place its first autonomous vehicle pilot in the city of Aachen. The strategy of the initiative is to be the first area-restricted pilot in the city of Aachen with SAE level 4. It is also working towards integrating AV-specific and general mobility services through a stepwise expansion of a test area.
Bad Birnbach Germany
An autonomous driving pilot project developed by Ioki has been launched in the spa town of Bad Birnbach in Lower Bavaria. The main goals of this pilot are to learn to operate an automated vehicle service and understand the process of road approval for these vehicles in Germany. Ioki is working on the further development of such systems and the corresponding regulatory framework with partners from the industry and the scientific and political sector.
HEAT is a pilot project from HOCHBAHN (PTO) in HafenCity, the new business and residential district close to the city centre and the harbour of Hamburg. The shuttle follows a fixed circular route with 5 stops and is wheelchair accessible. It is reachable at the dedicated stations. Along its route it interacts with mixed traffic on public streets and pedestrian crossing.
Movia, the Public Transport Authority (PTA) of Greater Copenhagen has planned three pilots to test autonomous busses on hospital sites. Movia, as a PTA, has policy priorities which seek to push the development of autonomous technology in public transport. They believe it is important to test autonomous buses interlinked with public transport in order to understand and fine-tune the technology in relation to topics such as user behaviour, user-friendliness (e.g. disability and satisfaction), user acceptance and ordinary operation in the context of public transport.
Catalonia Living Lab is an automotive service provider using a public-private framework for the development and testing of connected and automated vehicle (CAV) technologies for the international automotive and research industry. The primary goal of Catalonia Living Lab is to cover all CAV related development and testing needs of the international automotive industry, with Catalan (public) infrastructures, facilities and services.
AUTOMOST is a pilot programme taking place in Malaga, Spain. It has a fixed route and its access has been defined as coordinated-based. The system interacts with mixed traffic on public streets and pedestrian crossings. There are 5 stops on the route and the service is offered both scheduled and on-demand.
GACHA is the World’s first self-driving shuttle bus for all weather conditions. Developed by Sensible 4 and designed in cooperation with MUJI, GACHA was made for everyday use for people around the world.
RobobusLine is a pilot project running in Kivikko in eastern Helsinki and complements the 94R line on the network of Helsinki's metropolitan public transit authority, Helsinki Region Transport (HSL). The project seeks to improve the functionality and efficiency of public transport by means of automation. The objective of the project is to create a base for a seasonal automated bus route and to get closer to the point of having a driverless (remotely operated) first/last mile bus operating efficiently as part of public transport services.
The City of Tempere has dedicated a test field to developing future connected and automated driving functions for certain situations as well as automated urban first/last-mile buses. The first aim of URBAN-CAD is to offer developers a place to adapt and validate their technology before entering it on the market. The second aim is to enable the creation of new AV functions which would boost the economic growth of the concerned companies. Finally, URBAN-CAD also aims to learn about the future mobility needs of people.
Boulogne sur Mer's initiative consisted of an experiment on Quai des Paquebots along a pre-defined 300m road, near the Sea National Center (which has about 60.000 visitors per year). RATP, IDF Mobilités and the City of Paris are collecting feedback from travellers on this pilot. This feedback will be taken into account when creating the autonomous bus line which the city is hoping on eventually putting into place.
Navya is providing a free service between the Tram Line 1 and office buildings near the River Saone. This initiative seeks to test first & last mile new mobility solutions in a smart city district.
This demo tested the automation of bus parking procedures in an underground bus depot. The aim of this demo was to test the technical feasibility of automated parking in a private environment.
For this project, RATP operated two EZ10 shuttles for passengers to travel free of charge between Austerlitz station and Lyon station. The aim of these pilot initiatives was to integrate automated vehicles into the public transport system; including shuttles, shared cars, buses and tramways.
This pilot counts three vehicles which operate on trhee different routes. These routes connect the main train/metro system. The objective of this pilot is to offer a mobility solution for the employees of the area. La Défense is the most crowded Business area in Europe and probably one of the most complex areas in the world for automated vehicles as it is a mainly pedestrian area with no traffic rules.
Four Renault ZOE all-electric cars, equipped with autonomous systems developed by Transdev and Renault, are being tested on open roads. The objective of this initiative is to be the first on-demand transport service using autonomous electric vehicles on open roads in Europe.
For two months RATP operated 2 Easymile shuttles. This shuttle served as a free internal service for the Saclay CEA private industrial estate. This experiment was developed in the context of a national research project called SESNA.
This shuttle service, operated by Transdev for VEDECOM, aims to build a liaison between the Massy-Palaiseau multimodal train station and the Polytechnique campus. The general aim of this pilot is to demonstrate the benefits of connected infrastructures and of the safety and efficiency of this type of service.
This pilot project operated by RATP is located in the Bois de Vincennes and connects Chateau de Vincennes metro station (line 1) to the Chalet de la Porte Jaune station. With this new trial, RATP, IDF Mobilités and the City of Paris are collecting feedback from travellers on the service. The objective is to prepare the operation of an autonomous bus line.
London United Kingdom
This pilot, operated by Keolis, provided an AV service for the visitors of the Olympic Park. This pilot was the first trial open to the public in the UK. The aim was to test AV technology to eventually provide a first and last mile solution.
Manchester United Kingdom
The POD shuttle service is operated by Public Transport Operator (PTO) Transfor for Great Manchester (TfGM) around Manchester Airport, taking visitors from the transport interchange to the terminals and also connecting the hotels and car parks at Airport City with the terminals. The objective of this project is to understand how connected and autonomous vehicles can help address key transport challenges and opportunities within Greater Manchester.
Manchester United Kingdom
This shuttle service operated by Transport for Greater Manchester (TfGM) for the University of Salford follows a fixed route and a fixed schedule. The University is looking to use this as an opportunity to gain further funding to increase the operation to a fleet and to schedule routes around the campus and connect it to its surroundings such as Salford Crescent train station and Media City UK in Salford Quays.
AVINT is ICCS’ (research institute) new full service transport line that interconnects the city center, the local university and the intercity bus terminal of Trikala. The objective of AVINT is to better connect the city and its surroundings.
The CityMobil2 project was developed by ICCS (research institute) and consisted of a circular line within the city center of Trikala. The demo had several objectives: introduce AVs within the city’s transport network and familiarise the local population with the AVs, test the technology robustness in a large scale scenario, and more.
JR EAST tests the operation of an autonomous bus (BRT) on the BRT dedicated road of the Ofunato BRT line. It is testing features such as lane keeping control, speed control, alternating traffic, etc.
Capelle aan den IJssel Netherlands
2getthere’s current, second generation system operates on a 1.8km dedicated lane and features five stations that service two business parks and a growing residential area. This system solves a common current transit issue and has proven to be reliable, safe and attractive to use.
This autonomous shuttle service provided transport from the entrance of the Ommelander Hospital in Groningen, to further public transport connections. The Northern Netherlands region offers – in all aspects – everything it takes to allow autonomous transportation to become a sustainable feature of its whole future transportation system.
This initiative consists of an autonomous city bus which transports people from a big parking lot to the city centre and shops. The parking lot is just by the Gjøvik Ice Hall. This project is part of the Gjøvik Municipality climate plan. The purpose of the trial is to learn how a permanent use of such vehicles could, one day, be implemented in Gjøvik. Such buses will be important supplements to the existing public transport service by serving as first and last mile buses to and from other public transport modes.
The goal of this pilot was to implement an autonomous shuttle service with no operator on board for the first time in Northern Europe. The chosen site was Herøya Industrial Park, where the shuttle transported people from the main gate to the workshop at the end of the route. The shuttle ran for 14 days and operational hours were from 08.00 to 16.00. A shuttle supervisor was on site during operations and kept the shuttle in sight.
Kongsberg currently has 12 different autonomous driving projects, one of them being the open test arena. This initiative consists of autonomous minibuses driving in the city. Kongsberg would like to offer a service which fulfils the transport demand of its inhabitants, even if this means driving to every corner of the city.
Between February and May 2019, Applied Autonomy AS conducted a feasibility study for testing an environmentally friendly and autonomous transport to a planned visitor center (Arctic Preservation Visitor Center), based on an assignment from Arctic Memory AS.
There is not any other public transport coverage in the area that was covered by route 35. As such the bus line enabled mobility for people in this area and was also intended to attract visitors to Vippetangen (which was a targeted development area by the municipality). The area is located in the city centre of Oslo and has high visibility at the same time as attracting lots of people.
In November 2019, Ruter put line 35 on pause when road construction work along Akershusstranda created a too unstable operating situation. The pilot was then decided to move to a new route from Vippetangen to Christiania torv. During the 4 months of operation in Kongens gate from June until 2020, Ruter had over 1500 passengers on board and drove more than 2600 km through three traffic lights.
Route 85B operated with three vehicles in a neighbourhood, complementing another existing bus line to increase the frequency for passengers in the area. The vehicles operated on a fixed route/schedule, as an integrated part of the Oslo public transport network. The vehicles on site operated both in rush-hour and non-rush hour on weekdays and over the weekends.
Route 529 in Ski will initially operate with two vehicles in a neighbourhood, moving passengers from the Hebekk area to the train station in Ski, which is an important public transport hub. The vehicles will initially operate on a fixed route/schedule, as an integrated part of the public transport network in Ruter. An on-demand function is planned as a part of the extended pilot.
This project was the first of its kind in Europe. The goal was to deliver an autonomous on-demand service to the citizens of Trondheim. It was a complex route with 20 stations where the shuttle had to be ordered via a mobile phone application to arrive at the desired stop and take the passenger(s) to their destination. The route had to be dynamic to serve this purpose.
Thuwal Saudi Arabia
This service operates on the same fixed route between stops at the Lake Nona Town Center (located at the Pixon Apartments) and Laureate Park Village Center. Eventually, the plan is to significantly increase the number of shuttles and expand the route network to make getting around Lake Nona even easier.
This project is a research demonstrator in a confined area. It consists of an automated depot and bus stop docking operation. The aim of this study is to investigate customer benefits, understand customer value, mature technology as well as anticipate regulatory requirements and the corresponding safety testing methods.
The S3 Shared Shuttle Services is a pilot project running on two distinct routes. The first one serves the Chalmers University of Technology campus in Johanneberg while the second route consists of a first/last-mile parking shuttle between a suburban parking area and Lindholmen Science Park. The pilot project seeks to demonstrate how developer-financed transportation solutions can spark and support dense urban growth with new, lower parking norms, as well as investigate new mobility options to strengthen mobility in Gothenburg and its surroundings.
ELIN is an integrated and multibrand demonstrator for how autonomous, electrified buses will be a part of future sustainable cities, and a living exhibition area for shared solutions and MaaS.
Bus line 549 is a full service line operated by Nobina for the transport administration Stockholm County Council - SL Public Transport Authority (PTA) in Stockholm. The main objective of this project is to learn about the first/last mile context in a live environment with public usage.
Arlington United States
In October 2018, Drive.ai announced its second self-driving programme on public roads: an on-demand ride-hailing service in the City of Arlington, Texas. The aim of Drive.ai as a company and with this program in Arlington is to use self-driving technology to create truly impactful mobility solutions.
Austin United States
The project was a shuttle demo service at the University of Texas on Austin campus, in the parking lot outside Sid Richardson Hall. This demonstration explored automated vehicle technology and the challenges it presents.
Grand Rapids United States
Grand Rapids autonomous shuttle experiments are allowing the city to better understand the potential of future mobility with public transportation. It’s a six seat electric shuttle having an attendant positioned in the front seat who can take the control of the vehicle wherever necessary. May Mobility provided the city with the heat map that indicates different areas in Grand Rapids.
Pittsburgh United States
The Advanced Technologies Group (ATG), Uber’s self-driving vehicles arm, is currently testing its self-driving system on public roads in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S. This on-road testing is focused on core self-driving system development. Vehicles are operated by two safety drivers, or Mission Specialists, who are full-time Uber ATG employees; rides to members of public are not currently offered.
Providence United States
The Little Rowdy Project brings the first self-driving shuttles to Rhode Island. The fleet of electric vehicles offers rides along a 8.52 km route in the Woonasquatucket River Corridor of Providence, with 12 stops between Providence Station and Olneyville Square. This initiative engages the community, stakeholders, and policy-makers in research and planning for the future of transportation.
Also known as flocking. A collection of (automated) vehicles that travel together, actively coordinated in formation. Platoons decrease the distances between vehicles using electronic, and possibly mechanical, coupling. Platooning allows many vehicles to accelerate or brake simultaneously.
High density environment with an efficient high capacity public transport system with good capillarity and high frequencies.
Medium density environment with a good public transport system with radial connections to the city center, but lower capillarity and frequencies. This setting includes suburban cities.
Small, isolated city with an own public transport system and <100K inhabitants.
Low-density environment, small cities and villages with poor public transport services mainly connecting the villages.
The SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers) levels define the level of vehicle autonomy, or in other words, how much human intervention is still needed for an automated vehicle to operate. Currently, five SAE levels have been defined: Level 0: Automated system issues warnings and may momentarily intervene but has no sustained vehicle control. Level 1 (hands on): Driver and automatic system share vehicle control. The driver must be ready to retake full control at any time. Level 2 (hands off): The automated system takes full control of the vehicle (accelerating, braking, and steering). The driver must monitor the driving and be prepared to intervene immediately at any time if the automated system fails to respond properly. Level 3 (eyes off): The automated system takes full control of the vehicle (accelerating, braking, and steering). The driver must monitor the driving and be prepared to intervene immediately at any time if the automated system fails to respond properly. Level 4 (mind off): As level 3, but no driver attention is ever required for safety, e.g. the driver may safely go to sleep or leave the driver's seat. Level 5 (steering wheel optional): No human intervention is required at all. An example would be a robotic taxi.
Vehicle-to-everything (V2X) communication is the passing of information from a vehicle to any entity that may affect the vehicle, and vice versa.