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This pilot, operated by Fluidtime, is testing an electric shuttle on a fixed route which has two station based stops. The first aim of this project is to find out how automated vehicles can be integrated into regional mobility systems (e.g. passenger information, connection with other means of transport). The second aim is to find methods for passenger interaction in driverless operations (e.g. communication with a control station).
The Future Mobility Lab is in charge of multiple initiatives, of which five are active trials. Future Mobility Lab is conducting trials to gain a better understanding of the risks and opportunities for autonomous vehicles. They believe autonomous vehicles may contribute to creating a more efficient and people-centric public transport system, while improving mobility options and safety.
Autonobus was a pilot with a self-driving Navya shuttle bus which provides a last-mile mobility service at La Trobe University's Bundoora campus in Melbourne. The pilot was used to assess a self-driving shuttle bus as a potential last-mile mobility service in a real-world environment.
This pilot project is the first one of its kind in Brussels. The first phase of this project will consist of two shuttles following a fixed-route in a park that will run on Fridays and weekends. The Public Transport Operator (PTO) hopes to gain operational knowledge of this new technology during the one year lease of these shuttles.
The autonomous electric shuttle operates on Montcalm Boulevard on a 2km route between the park-and-ride lot/bus terminal and the city's Landmark Park at the other end of the boulevard. The City of Candiac puts great emphasis on sustainable development and mobility. This pilot is perfectly aligned with the city’s vision in terms of innovation and is at the heart of the 2014-2029 strategic plan.
This pilot project from Public Transport Operator Transports Publics Fribourgeois (TPF) has been designed to be presented as an official line (line 100). These autonomous shuttles are a potential solution to the first/last mile problem while keeping costs low. The pilot in itself allows TPF to try out their autonomous shuttles, position themselves in the future of mobility, test the integration of the shuttle into the existing public transport network and study the users’ acceptance.
The Swiss Transit Lab Route 12 pilot, operated by the Public Transport Operator (PTO) Verkehrsbetriebe Schaffhausen (VBSH), provides a transport service all week. This initiative aims to offer mobility solutions to the first and last mile section of the trip.
The PostAuto SmartShuttle long term pilot is a first step to integrating self-driving buses in the public transportation system of Sion by 2020. The aim of this project is to test the integration of AVs in public transportation systems in order to eventually provide a first/last mile solution.
The Alphaba Smart Bus is a demo pilot running in open public road conditions with mixed traffic in Shenzhen. The overarching goal of this project is to develop and deploy AV smart technologies in a public bus operation. In order to do so, the pilot aims to demonstrate the feasibility of autonomous bus operations and to obtain running big data for continuous improvement.
e.GO Mobile is putting into place its first autonomous vehicle pilot in the city of Aachen. The strategy of the initiative is to be the first area-restricted pilot in the city of Aachen with SAE level 4. It is also working towards integrating AV-specific and general mobility services through a stepwise expansion of a test area.
Bad Birnbach Germany
An autonomous driving pilot project developed by Ioki has been launched in the spa town of Bad Birnbach in Lower Bavaria. The main goals of this pilot are to learn to operate an automated vehicle service and understand the process of road approval for these vehicles in Germany. Ioki is working on the further development of such systems and the corresponding regulatory framework with partners from the industry and the scientific and political sector.
HEAT is a pilot project from Public Transport Operator (PTO) HOCHBAHN in HafenCity, the new business and residential district close to the city centre and the harbour of Hamburg. HOCHBAHN relies on this project to fill in the current gaps of the transport network through a convenient and affordable service.
Movia, the Public Transport Authority (PTA) of Greater Copenhagen has planned three pilots to test autonomous busses on hospital sites. Movia, as a PTA, has policy priorities which seek to push the development of autonomous technology in public transport. They believe it is important to test autonomous buses interlinked with public transport in order to understand and fine-tune the technology in relation to topics such as user behaviour, user-friendliness (e.g. disability and satisfaction), user acceptance and ordinary operation in the context of public transport.
Catalonia Living Lab is an automotive service provider using a public-private framework for the development and testing of connected and automated vehicle (CAV) technologies for the international automotive and research industry. The primary goal of Catalonia Living Lab is to cover all CAV related development and testing needs of the international automotive industry, with Catalan (public) infrastructures, facilities and services.
RobobusLine is a pilot project running in Kivikko in eastern Helsinki and complements the 94R line on the network of Helsinki's metropolitan public transit authority, Helsinki Region Transport (HSL). The project seeks to improve the functionality and efficiency of public transport by means of automation. The objective of the project is to create a base for a seasonal automated bus route and to get closer to the point of having a driverless (remotely operated) first/last mile bus operating efficiently as part of public transport services.
The City of Tempere has dedicated a test field to developing future connected and automated driving functions for certain situations as well as automated urban first/last-mile buses. The first aim of URBAN-CAD is to offer developers a place to adapt and validate their technology before entering it on the market. The second aim is to enable the creation of new AV functions which would boost the economic growth of the concerned companies. Finally, URBAN-CAD also aims to learn about the future mobility needs of people.
Boulogne sur Mer's initiative consisted of an experiment on Quai des Paquebots along a pre-defined 300m road, near the Sea National Center (which has about 60.000 visitors per year). RATP, IDF Mobilités and the City of Paris are collecting feedback from travellers on this pilot. This feedback will be taken into account when creating the autonomous bus line which the city is hoping on eventually putting into place.
Navya is providing a free service between the Tram Line 1 and office buildings near the River Saone. This initiative seeks to test first & last mile new mobility solutions in a smart city district.
This demo tested the automation of bus parking procedures in an underground bus depot. The aim of this demo was to test the technical feasibility of automated parking in a private environment.
For this project, RATP operated two EZ10 shuttles for passengers to travel free of charge between Austerlitz station and Lyon station. The aim of these pilot initiatives was to integrate automated vehicles into the public transport system; including shuttles, shared cars, buses and tramways.
This pilot counts three vehicles which operate on trhee different routes. These routes connect the main train/metro system. The objective of this pilot is to offer a mobility solution for the employees of the area. La Défense is the most crowded Business area in Europe and probably one of the most complex areas in the world for automated vehicles as it is a mainly pedestrian area with no traffic rules.
Four Renault ZOE all-electric cars, equipped with autonomous systems developed by Transdev and Renault, are being tested on open roads. The objective of this initiative is to be the first on-demand transport service using autonomous electric vehicles on open roads in Europe.
For two months RATP operated 2 Easymile shuttles. This shuttle served as a free internal service for the Saclay CEA private industrial estate. This experiment was developed in the context of a national research project called SESNA.
This shuttle service, operated by Transdev for VEDECOM, aims to build a liaison between the Massy-Palaiseau multimodal train station and the Polytechnique campus. The general aim of this pilot is to demonstrate the benefits of connected infrastructures and of the safety and efficiency of this type of service.
This pilot project operated by RATP is located in the Bois de Vincennes and connects Chateau de Vincennes metro station (line 1) to the Chalet de la Porte Jaune station. With this new trial, RATP, IDF Mobilités and the City of Paris are collecting feedback from travellers on the service. The objective is to prepare the operation of an autonomous bus line.
London United Kingdom
This pilot, operated by Keolis, provided an AV service for the visitors of the Olympic Park. This pilot was the first trial open to the public in the UK. The aim was to test AV technology to eventually provide a first and last mile solution.
Manchester United Kingdom
The POD shuttle service is operated by Public Transport Operator (PTO) Transfor for Great Manchester (TfGM) around Manchester Airport, taking visitors from the transport interchange to the terminals and also connecting the hotels and car parks at Airport City with the terminals. The objective of this project is to understand how connected and autonomous vehicles can help address key transport challenges and opportunities within Greater Manchester.
Manchester United Kingdom
This shuttle service operated by Transport for Greater Manchester (TfGM) for the University of Salford follows a fixed route and a fixed schedule. The University is looking to use this as an opportunity to gain further funding to increase the operation to a fleet and to schedule routes around the campus and connect it to its surroundings such as Salford Crescent train station and Media City UK in Salford Quays.
AVINT is ICCS’ (research institute) new full service transport line that interconnects the city center, the local university and the intercity bus terminal of Trikala. The objective of AVINT is to better connect the city and its surroundings.
The CityMobil2 project was developed by ICCS (research institute) and consisted of a circular line within the city center of Trikala. The demo had several objectives: introduce AVs within the city’s transport network and familiarise the local population with the AVs, test the technology robustness in a large scale scenario, and more.
JR EAST tests the operation of an autonomous bus (BRT) on the BRT dedicated road of the Ofunato BRT line. It is testing features such as lane keeping control, speed control, alternating traffic, etc.
Capelle aan den IJssel Netherlands
2getthere’s current, second generation system operates on a 1.8km dedicated lane and features five stations that service two business parks and a growing residential area. This system solves a common current transit issue and has proven to be reliable, safe and attractive to use.
This initiative consists of an autonomous city bus which transports people from a big parking lot to the city centre and shops. The parking lot is just by the Gjøvik Ice Hall. This project is part of the Gjøvik Municipality climate plan. The purpose of the trial is to learn how a permanent use of such vehicles could, one day, be implemented in Gjøvik. Such buses will be important supplements to the existing public transport service by serving as first and last mile buses to and from other public transport modes.
Kongsberg currently has 12 different autonomous driving projects, one of them being the open test arena. This initiative consists of autonomous minibuses driving in the city. Kongsberg would like to offer a service which fulfils the transport demand of its inhabitants, even if this means driving to every corner of the city.
This project is a research demonstrator in a confined area. It consists of an automated depot and bus stop docking operation. The aim of this study is to investigate customer benefits, understand customer value, mature technology as well as anticipate regulatory requirements and the corresponding safety testing methods.
The S3 Shared Shuttle Services is a pilot project running on two distinct routes. The first one serves the Chalmers University of Technology campus in Johanneberg while the second route consists of a first/last-mile parking shuttle between a suburban parking area and Lindholmen Science Park. The pilot project seeks to demonstrate how developer-financed transportation solutions can spark and support dense urban growth with new, lower parking norms, as well as investigate new mobility options to strengthen mobility in Gothenburg and its surroundings.
Bus line 549 is a full service line operated by Nobina for the transport administration Stockholm County Council - SL Public Transport Authority (PTA) in Stockholm. The main objective of this project is to learn about the first/last mile context in a live environment with public usage.
Arlington United States
In October 2018, Drive.ai announced its second self-driving programme on public roads: an on-demand ride-hailing service in the City of Arlington, Texas. The aim of Drive.ai as a company and with this program in Arlington is to use self-driving technology to create truly impactful mobility solutions.
Austin United States
The project was a shuttle demo service at the University of Texas on Austin campus, in the parking lot outside Sid Richardson Hall. This demonstration explored automated vehicle technology and the challenges it presents.
Also known as flocking. A collection of (automated) vehicles that travel together, actively coordinated in formation. Platoons decrease the distances between vehicles using electronic, and possibly mechanical, coupling. Platooning allows many vehicles to accelerate or brake simultaneously.
High density environment with an efficient high capacity public transport system with good capillarity and high frequencies.
Medium density environment with a good public transport system with radial connections to the city center, but lower capillarity and frequencies. This setting includes suburban cities.
Small, isolated city with an own public transport system and <100K inhabitants.
Low-density environment, small cities and villages with poor public transport services mainly connecting the villages.
The SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers) levels define the level of vehicle autonomy, or in other words, how much human intervention is still needed for an automated vehicle to operate. Currently, five SAE levels have been defined: Level 0: Automated system issues warnings and may momentarily intervene but has no sustained vehicle control. Level 1 (hands on): Driver and automatic system share vehicle control. The driver must be ready to retake full control at any time. Level 2 (hands off): The automated system takes full control of the vehicle (accelerating, braking, and steering). The driver must monitor the driving and be prepared to intervene immediately at any time if the automated system fails to respond properly. Level 3 (eyes off): The automated system takes full control of the vehicle (accelerating, braking, and steering). The driver must monitor the driving and be prepared to intervene immediately at any time if the automated system fails to respond properly. Level 4 (mind off): As level 3, but no driver attention is ever required for safety, e.g. the driver may safely go to sleep or leave the driver's seat. Level 5 (steering wheel optional): No human intervention is required at all. An example would be a robotic taxi.
Vehicle-to-everything (V2X) communication is the passing of information from a vehicle to any entity that may affect the vehicle, and vice versa.