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Pilot

Charles de Gaulle Bridge Shuttle

Charles de Gaulle Bridge Shuttle
Location
Paris, France
Date
From to
Length
0.25 km
Project details
What

© RATP Group. Charles de Gaulle Bridge Shuttle.

What

For this project, RATP operated two EZ10 shuttles ran 7 days a week from 14:00 to 20:00 on a dedicated right of way lane and with an agent on board. Passengers could travel at no charge between Austerlitz station and Lyon station. The shuttles followed fixed closed routes with two station based stops and were PRM accessible. The timing was frequency based.

Why

The aim of these pilot initiatives was to integrate automated vehicles into the public transport system; including shuttles, shared cars, buses and tramways. This pilot had several objectives. The first one was to learn about the feasibility of using automated shuttles: information was collected on performance, reliability and safety. The second objective was to collect feedback from the passengers regarding the test and learn about how to improve the service. The final objective was to gain further knowledge about insurance, regulation and acceptance.

© RATP Group. Charles de Gaulle Bridge Shuttle.

© RATP Group. Charles de Gaulle Bridge Shuttle.

Regulatory Framework

A regulatory framework for experimentation was respected here (Ordonnance n°2016 1057, Loi Pacte - Loi LOM).

Challenges

Some of the challenges encountered include speed control, obstacle avoidance, remote control, traveler service evaluation and acceptance.

Results & Evaluation

© RATP Group. Charles de Gaulle Bridge Shuttle - Route

Results & Evaluation

By the end of the pilot 30,000 people had been transported with an average of 400 per day. The shuttle travelled a total of 2,400km (average of 34km per day) at an average speed of 7km/h. Passengers gave excellent evaluations of the service.

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Lexicon

7 words explained

platooning

Also known as flocking. A collection of (automated) vehicles that travel together, actively coordinated in formation. Platoons decrease the distances between vehicles using electronic, and possibly mechanical, coupling. Platooning allows many vehicles to accelerate or brake simultaneously.

urban setting

High density environment with an efficient high capacity public transport system with good capillarity and high frequencies.

suburban setting

Medium density environment with a good public transport system with radial connections to the city center, but lower capillarity and frequencies. This setting includes suburban cities.

small cities

Small, isolated city with an own public transport system and <100K inhabitants.

rural

Low-density environment, small cities and villages with poor public transport services mainly connecting the villages.

SAE level

The SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers) levels define the level of vehicle autonomy, or in other words, how much human intervention is still needed for an automated vehicle to operate. Currently, five SAE levels have been defined: Level 0: Automated system issues warnings and may momentarily intervene but has no sustained vehicle control. Level 1 (hands on): Driver and automatic system share vehicle control. The driver must be ready to retake full control at any time. Level 2 (hands off): The automated system takes full control of the vehicle (accelerating, braking, and steering). The driver must monitor the driving and be prepared to intervene immediately at any time if the automated system fails to respond properly. Level 3 (eyes off): The automated system takes full control of the vehicle (accelerating, braking, and steering). The driver must monitor the driving and be prepared to intervene immediately at any time if the automated system fails to respond properly. Level 4 (mind off): As level 3, but no driver attention is ever required for safety, e.g. the driver may safely go to sleep or leave the driver's seat. Level 5 (steering wheel optional): No human intervention is required at all. An example would be a robotic taxi.

V2X

Vehicle-to-everything (V2X) communication is the passing of information from a vehicle to any entity that may affect the vehicle, and vice versa.