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Pilot

CityMobil2 Pilot

CityMobil2 Pilot
Location
Trikala, Greece
Date
From to
Length
2.5 km
Project details

What

The CityMobil2 project was developed by ICCS (research institute) that consisted of a circular line within the city center of Trikala. The shuttle followed a fixed route with eight coordinated based stops and arrived on a frequency base. Along its route it encountered mixed traffic on public streets and pedestrians crossing. The vehicle is wheelchair accessible.

Why

The demo had several objectives: introduce AVs within the city’s transport network and familiarise the local population with the AVs, test the technology robustness in a large scale scenario, decouple specific roads in the city center from heavy traffic and pave the way to the integration of softer mobility schemes in the city. It was also a way to test the certification process within the new (at that time) law.

Budget & Financing

The budget for the demo was €900,000. It was financed by CityMobil2 and by the Prefecture of Thessaly.

© ICCS. CityMobil2 Pilot.

© ICCS. CityMobil2 Pilot.

Regulatory Framework

Regulations in Trikala concerning AVs include having dedicated lanes for the AVs, respecting speed limits and having a remote control center.

Challenges

The challenges the demo faced include: integrating the AVs in mixed traffic mode with limited segregation; implementing the new legal framework for vehicle homologation for the first time in Greece and performing remote emergency breaks.

Results & Evaluation

By the end of the trial, 12,138 passengers had been transported with an average of 120 people per day. The shuttle travelled a total of 3,580 km (25km on average per day) on an average operational speed of 20km/h. The customer satisfaction was rated at 4.3 out of 5 for usefulness and the overall service was rated at 3.6 out of 5. The vehicle was considered reliable except when there were heavy rains. There was one incident during the demo: the vehicle left its course and climbed on a pavement for 5 centimeters before stopping.

Associated Research

Public acceptance research and behavioral patterns towards AVs were associated researches to the pilot.

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Lexicon

7 words explained

platooning

Also known as flocking. A collection of (automated) vehicles that travel together, actively coordinated in formation. Platoons decrease the distances between vehicles using electronic, and possibly mechanical, coupling. Platooning allows many vehicles to accelerate or brake simultaneously.

urban setting

High density environment with an efficient high capacity public transport system with good capillarity and high frequencies.

suburban setting

Medium density environment with a good public transport system with radial connections to the city center, but lower capillarity and frequencies. This setting includes suburban cities.

small cities

Small, isolated city with an own public transport system and <100K inhabitants.

rural

Low-density environment, small cities and villages with poor public transport services mainly connecting the villages.

SAE level

The SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers) levels define the level of vehicle autonomy, or in other words, how much human intervention is still needed for an automated vehicle to operate. Currently, five SAE levels have been defined: Level 0: Automated system issues warnings and may momentarily intervene but has no sustained vehicle control. Level 1 (hands on): Driver and automatic system share vehicle control. The driver must be ready to retake full control at any time. Level 2 (hands off): The automated system takes full control of the vehicle (accelerating, braking, and steering). The driver must monitor the driving and be prepared to intervene immediately at any time if the automated system fails to respond properly. Level 3 (eyes off): The automated system takes full control of the vehicle (accelerating, braking, and steering). The driver must monitor the driving and be prepared to intervene immediately at any time if the automated system fails to respond properly. Level 4 (mind off): As level 3, but no driver attention is ever required for safety, e.g. the driver may safely go to sleep or leave the driver's seat. Level 5 (steering wheel optional): No human intervention is required at all. An example would be a robotic taxi.

V2X

Vehicle-to-everything (V2X) communication is the passing of information from a vehicle to any entity that may affect the vehicle, and vice versa.