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Pilot

HEAT

HEAT
Location
Hamburg, Germany
Date
From to
Length
1.8 km
Project details

What

HEAT is a pilot project from Public Transport Operator (PTO) HOCHBAHN in HafenCity, the new business and residential district close to the city centre and the harbour of Hamburg. The shuttle follows a fixed circular route with nine stops and is wheelchair accessible. It is reachable at the dedicated stations and runs on a defined schedule. Along its route it interacts with mixed traffic on public streets and pedestrian crossing.

Why

HOCHBAHN relies on this project to fill in the current gaps of the transport network through a convenient and affordable service. HEAT is a way to investigate the regulatory and technical conditions of AVs in real traffic conditions. These insights will then help develop HOCHBAHN's AV Strategy for future services.

© Hamburger Hochbahn AG. HEAT.

© Hamburger Hochbahn AG. HEAT.

Budget & Financing

HEAT is supported by the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety. The percentage of support varies from one partner to another.

Regulatory Framework

In Germany a new regulation allows automated driving of levels 2 and 3 as long as there is a steward inside the vehicle. Further legislative changes are part of the coalition treaty, but they are not addressed in the parliament.

Challenges

Some of the challenges that HEAT has encountered so far include the development/procurement of a high-definition map, the development of a dynamic map Information, and the lack of a secure digital signal between traffic lights and vehicles. The limited precision of the vehicle’s positioning has also presented problems, especially between high buildings.

Associated Research

Associated research to the pilot include customer acceptance, monitored by DLR and regulatory framework and business models which are analysed by IKEM.

© Hamburger Hochbahn AG. HEAT - Route

© Hamburger Hochbahn AG. HEAT - Route

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Lexicon

7 words explained

platooning

Also known as flocking. A collection of (automated) vehicles that travel together, actively coordinated in formation. Platoons decrease the distances between vehicles using electronic, and possibly mechanical, coupling. Platooning allows many vehicles to accelerate or brake simultaneously.

urban setting

High density environment with an efficient high capacity public transport system with good capillarity and high frequencies.

suburban setting

Medium density environment with a good public transport system with radial connections to the city center, but lower capillarity and frequencies. This setting includes suburban cities.

small cities

Small, isolated city with an own public transport system and <100K inhabitants.

rural

Low-density environment, small cities and villages with poor public transport services mainly connecting the villages.

SAE level

The SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers) levels define the level of vehicle autonomy, or in other words, how much human intervention is still needed for an automated vehicle to operate. Currently, five SAE levels have been defined: Level 0: Automated system issues warnings and may momentarily intervene but has no sustained vehicle control. Level 1 (hands on): Driver and automatic system share vehicle control. The driver must be ready to retake full control at any time. Level 2 (hands off): The automated system takes full control of the vehicle (accelerating, braking, and steering). The driver must monitor the driving and be prepared to intervene immediately at any time if the automated system fails to respond properly. Level 3 (eyes off): The automated system takes full control of the vehicle (accelerating, braking, and steering). The driver must monitor the driving and be prepared to intervene immediately at any time if the automated system fails to respond properly. Level 4 (mind off): As level 3, but no driver attention is ever required for safety, e.g. the driver may safely go to sleep or leave the driver's seat. Level 5 (steering wheel optional): No human intervention is required at all. An example would be a robotic taxi.

V2X

Vehicle-to-everything (V2X) communication is the passing of information from a vehicle to any entity that may affect the vehicle, and vice versa.