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Kongsberg Test Arena

Kongsberg Test Arena
Location
Kongsberg, Norway
Date
From to
Length
2 km
Project details

What

Kongsberg currently has 12 different autonomous driving projects, one of them being the open test arena. This initiative consists of autonomous minibuses driving in the city. Along their trip the buses interact with cars, pedestrians, bicycles and mixed traffic on private estates. It has 8 station based stops, follows a schedule and is wheelchair accessible. The routing is now fixed but will eventually become dynamic.

Why

Kongsberg would like to offer a service which fulfils the transport demand of its inhabitants, even if this means driving to every corner of the city. Kongsberg has built service organisations, support organisations and services around the autonomous vehicles projects.

© Applied Autonomoy. Kongsberg Test Arena

© Applied Autonomoy. Kongsberg Test Arena

Budget & Financing

The budget of this project is €1m (€3m when including control services, research project and 5G services). Every party is contributing to the financing of this project: Sohjoa Baltic Intereg Baltic, National Public Road, Applied Autonomy, Buskerud County, Brakar and the Kongsberg Muncipality who is especially supportive. Knowledge and possible risks are widely shared among the partners in order to enable the development of future projects.

Results & Evaluation

The project is still ongoing but so far the number of passengers varies widely every day. The average distance travelled per day is 12km at an average operational speed of 10 km/h. There have been no accidents and users have been enthusiastic about this project.

© Applied Autonomoy. Kongsberg Test Arena

© Applied Autonomoy. Kongsberg Test Arena

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Lexicon

7 words explained

platooning

Also known as flocking. A collection of (automated) vehicles that travel together, actively coordinated in formation. Platoons decrease the distances between vehicles using electronic, and possibly mechanical, coupling. Platooning allows many vehicles to accelerate or brake simultaneously.

urban setting

High density environment with an efficient high capacity public transport system with good capillarity and high frequencies.

suburban setting

Medium density environment with a good public transport system with radial connections to the city center, but lower capillarity and frequencies. This setting includes suburban cities.

small cities

Small, isolated city with an own public transport system and <100K inhabitants.

rural

Low-density environment, small cities and villages with poor public transport services mainly connecting the villages.

SAE level

The SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers) levels define the level of vehicle autonomy, or in other words, how much human intervention is still needed for an automated vehicle to operate. Currently, five SAE levels have been defined: Level 0: Automated system issues warnings and may momentarily intervene but has no sustained vehicle control. Level 1 (hands on): Driver and automatic system share vehicle control. The driver must be ready to retake full control at any time. Level 2 (hands off): The automated system takes full control of the vehicle (accelerating, braking, and steering). The driver must monitor the driving and be prepared to intervene immediately at any time if the automated system fails to respond properly. Level 3 (eyes off): The automated system takes full control of the vehicle (accelerating, braking, and steering). The driver must monitor the driving and be prepared to intervene immediately at any time if the automated system fails to respond properly. Level 4 (mind off): As level 3, but no driver attention is ever required for safety, e.g. the driver may safely go to sleep or leave the driver's seat. Level 5 (steering wheel optional): No human intervention is required at all. An example would be a robotic taxi.

V2X

Vehicle-to-everything (V2X) communication is the passing of information from a vehicle to any entity that may affect the vehicle, and vice versa.