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Line 529, Ski

Line 529, Ski
Ski, Norway
Project details


Ruter believes that shared autonomous mobility will play an important part of the future transportation system. We therefore want to be in front of the development to learn and utilize the technology advances in this area.

Route 529 in Ski will initially operate with two vehicles in a neighbourhood, moving passengers from the Hebekk area to the train station in Ski, which is an important public transport hub. The vehicles will initially operate on a fixed route/schedule, as an integrated part of the public transport network in Ruter. An on-demand function is planned as a part of the extended pilot.

The route covers regular public roads with mixed traffic with private cars and interaction with other public transport offers. The route has nine bus stops, where one of them is at the train station area. Along the 3,5 km long route you find relatively narrow roads, some relatively steep hills, one roundabout, several pedestrian crossings and intersections as well as a challenging mixed traffic situation at the train station area.


The purpose of Ruter's self-driving project is to investigate how self-driving vehicles can be used to create a better public transport service in the capital region. Through our first trials of self-driving buses in Oslo, we have acquired important knowledge and experience to further build on. For the next phase of the self-driving project, the collaboration with new players is expanded. Through an agreement obtained by Holo, Toyota Motor Europe and the Finnish technology company Sensible 4 have recently been incorporated into the project. The agreement allows for the use of Toyota vehicles equipped with Sensible 4's software on the upcoming transport offer.

The collaboration makes it possible for us to move the trialing an important step further, with vehicles and technology that in the long run can improve the public transport service to Ruter.

The pilot in Ski takes the project a significant and important step forward. It is exciting for us that our operator Holo will now combine Toyota's vehicles with Sensible 4's software. This enables us to work towards several of our major milestones in one pilot. The technology and vehicles make it possible to increase speed, and we will therefore work to ensure stable, seamless operation with self-driving vehicles in a 50-zone. Through CONNECTING, which is part of the Nordic Innovation Nordic Smart Mobility program, we are also beginning to develop and test systems for handling unmanned operations.

The pilot is also part of AUTOPIA, an innovation project in the public sector that gives us the opportunity to develop systems for self-driving vehicles on-demand.

Regulatory Framework

AV testing is enabled through a separate legislation and is obtained through a special permit from the Directorate of Public Roads.

Results & Evaluation

The pilot project started in the beginning of 2021, and will be operational through 2021 and 2022.

Associated Research

  • Smarter Transport in Norway (STiN). The Ministry of Transport has allocated funds to the Municipality of Oslo and Ruter's area of responsibility in Viken County Municipality for a pilot project involving point-to-point operation of autonomous buses.
  • The project is funded by the Norwegian Research Council as an Innovation projects in the public sector, with the purpose of testing self-driving passenger cars. The project is called AUTOPIA and is currently ongoing in cooperation with Holo, The Norwegian Road Administration, Viken County Municipality and The Institute of Transport Economics (TØI).
  • Nordic Innovation (Nordic Smart Mobility and Connectivity - Round 2): Through the CONNECTING project, Holo, Sensible 4 and Ruter will develop, test and implement a new control tower function to be able to monitor and handle remote control of autonomous vehicles.

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7 words explained


Also known as flocking. A collection of (automated) vehicles that travel together, actively coordinated in formation. Platoons decrease the distances between vehicles using electronic, and possibly mechanical, coupling. Platooning allows many vehicles to accelerate or brake simultaneously.

urban setting

High density environment with an efficient high capacity public transport system with good capillarity and high frequencies.

suburban setting

Medium density environment with a good public transport system with radial connections to the city center, but lower capillarity and frequencies. This setting includes suburban cities.

small cities

Small, isolated city with an own public transport system and <100K inhabitants.


Low-density environment, small cities and villages with poor public transport services mainly connecting the villages.

SAE level

The SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers) levels define the level of vehicle autonomy, or in other words, how much human intervention is still needed for an automated vehicle to operate. Currently, five SAE levels have been defined: Level 0: Automated system issues warnings and may momentarily intervene but has no sustained vehicle control. Level 1 (hands on): Driver and automatic system share vehicle control. The driver must be ready to retake full control at any time. Level 2 (hands off): The automated system takes full control of the vehicle (accelerating, braking, and steering). The driver must monitor the driving and be prepared to intervene immediately at any time if the automated system fails to respond properly. Level 3 (eyes off): The automated system takes full control of the vehicle (accelerating, braking, and steering). The driver must monitor the driving and be prepared to intervene immediately at any time if the automated system fails to respond properly. Level 4 (mind off): As level 3, but no driver attention is ever required for safety, e.g. the driver may safely go to sleep or leave the driver's seat. Level 5 (steering wheel optional): No human intervention is required at all. An example would be a robotic taxi.


Vehicle-to-everything (V2X) communication is the passing of information from a vehicle to any entity that may affect the vehicle, and vice versa.