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Demo

Centre Bus de Lagny - Intelligent Bus Parking

Centre Bus de Lagny - Intelligent Bus Parking
Location
Paris, France
Date
From to
Project details

What

This demo tested the automation of bus parking procedures in an underground bus depot. Two different situations were tested: the first one is when the driver arrives at the depot. The bus powers up in autonomous mode, exits its parking space in the level 3 basement and approaches the depot exit. The driver begins his or her shift when leaving the depot. The second situation is at the end of the shift. The driver leaves the bus at the depot entrance and with autonomous mode activated, the vehicle parks itself in the spot assigned by the automatic fleet management system after moving to the underground parking spaces. In both cases, a driver was always on board of the bus during tests to supervise the system. This project is part of the European Bus System of the Future 2 (EBSF 2) program launched in 2015.

Why

The aim of this demo was to test the technical feasibility of automated parking in a private environment. When perfected, this technology will be able to:

  • Optimise available space in bus depots located in dense urban areas thanks to tighter vehicle parking made possible by automated systems.
  • Assist bus drivers’ tasks by means of advanced driving assistance systems and ultimately changing some of their assignment (such as the necessary actions to take buses in and out the garage).
© RATP. Centre Bus de Lagny - Intelligent Bus Parking.

© RATP. Centre Bus de Lagny - Intelligent Bus Parking.

Budget & Financing

The budget of this demo is less than €2.5m and it is co-financed by the European Union.

Challenges

A technical challenge encountered was the reliability of the vehicle in the underground depot.

Results & Evaluation

On 30 March 2018, RATP Group, the CEA and IVECO Bus presented a demonstration of a fully autonomous bus garage in the level 3 basement of the Lagny bus depot in Paris. The systems worked well, with very good manoeuvring accuracy in autonomous mode.

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Lexicon

7 words explained

platooning

Also known as flocking. A collection of (automated) vehicles that travel together, actively coordinated in formation. Platoons decrease the distances between vehicles using electronic, and possibly mechanical, coupling. Platooning allows many vehicles to accelerate or brake simultaneously.

urban setting

High density environment with an efficient high capacity public transport system with good capillarity and high frequencies.

suburban setting

Medium density environment with a good public transport system with radial connections to the city center, but lower capillarity and frequencies. This setting includes suburban cities.

small cities

Small, isolated city with an own public transport system and <100K inhabitants.

rural

Low-density environment, small cities and villages with poor public transport services mainly connecting the villages.

SAE level

The SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers) levels define the level of vehicle autonomy, or in other words, how much human intervention is still needed for an automated vehicle to operate. Currently, five SAE levels have been defined: Level 0: Automated system issues warnings and may momentarily intervene but has no sustained vehicle control. Level 1 (hands on): Driver and automatic system share vehicle control. The driver must be ready to retake full control at any time. Level 2 (hands off): The automated system takes full control of the vehicle (accelerating, braking, and steering). The driver must monitor the driving and be prepared to intervene immediately at any time if the automated system fails to respond properly. Level 3 (eyes off): The automated system takes full control of the vehicle (accelerating, braking, and steering). The driver must monitor the driving and be prepared to intervene immediately at any time if the automated system fails to respond properly. Level 4 (mind off): As level 3, but no driver attention is ever required for safety, e.g. the driver may safely go to sleep or leave the driver's seat. Level 5 (steering wheel optional): No human intervention is required at all. An example would be a robotic taxi.

V2X

Vehicle-to-everything (V2X) communication is the passing of information from a vehicle to any entity that may affect the vehicle, and vice versa.