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Pilot

Paris la Défense Autonomous Vehicle

Paris la Défense Autonomous Vehicle
Location
Paris, France
Date
Started
Length
2 km
Project details

What

This pilot has trhee vehicles which operate on three different routes. These routes connect the main train/metro system. They have nine station based stops, follow fixed routes and their timing is frequency based. Along their way the shuttles encounter mixed traffic on a private estate and pedestrians crossing. The vehicles are wheelchair accessible.

Why

The objective of this pilot is to offer a mobility solution for the employees of the area. La Défense is the most crowded Business area in Europe and probably one of the most complex area in the world for automated vehicles as it is a mainly pedestrian area with no traffic rules. The overarching aim of the project is to provide a first and last mile automated vehicle solution.

© Keolis. Paris la Défense Autonomous Vehicle.

© Keolis. Paris la Défense Autonomous Vehicle.

Budget & Financing

The project is financed by Ile-de-France Mobilités (after the RFP process, won by Keolis).

Regulatory Framework

The site being private and with controlled access for vehicles, no official approval of the French Ministry in charge was needed.

Challenges

The pilot encountered some challenges to find a way in the middle of a heavy crowd during peak hours (even with added lanes on the ground). Another challenge was being able to receive a strong GPS signal in the middle of the skyscrapers.

Results & Evaluation

At the end of the trial, 40,000 people had been transported and a distance of 8,000 km had been covered at an average operational speed of 6km/h. The customer satisfaction was rated at 93% according to a survey made by Ile de France Mobilités.

© Keolis. Paris la Défense Autonomous Vehicle - Route

© Keolis. Paris la Défense Autonomous Vehicle - Route

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Lexicon

7 words explained

platooning

Also known as flocking. A collection of (automated) vehicles that travel together, actively coordinated in formation. Platoons decrease the distances between vehicles using electronic, and possibly mechanical, coupling. Platooning allows many vehicles to accelerate or brake simultaneously.

urban setting

High density environment with an efficient high capacity public transport system with good capillarity and high frequencies.

suburban setting

Medium density environment with a good public transport system with radial connections to the city center, but lower capillarity and frequencies. This setting includes suburban cities.

small cities

Small, isolated city with an own public transport system and <100K inhabitants.

rural

Low-density environment, small cities and villages with poor public transport services mainly connecting the villages.

SAE level

The SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers) levels define the level of vehicle autonomy, or in other words, how much human intervention is still needed for an automated vehicle to operate. Currently, five SAE levels have been defined: Level 0: Automated system issues warnings and may momentarily intervene but has no sustained vehicle control. Level 1 (hands on): Driver and automatic system share vehicle control. The driver must be ready to retake full control at any time. Level 2 (hands off): The automated system takes full control of the vehicle (accelerating, braking, and steering). The driver must monitor the driving and be prepared to intervene immediately at any time if the automated system fails to respond properly. Level 3 (eyes off): The automated system takes full control of the vehicle (accelerating, braking, and steering). The driver must monitor the driving and be prepared to intervene immediately at any time if the automated system fails to respond properly. Level 4 (mind off): As level 3, but no driver attention is ever required for safety, e.g. the driver may safely go to sleep or leave the driver's seat. Level 5 (steering wheel optional): No human intervention is required at all. An example would be a robotic taxi.

V2X

Vehicle-to-everything (V2X) communication is the passing of information from a vehicle to any entity that may affect the vehicle, and vice versa.