Mission to SPACE completed: UITP’s automated vehicles project draws to a close
UITP's mission to SPACE has been completed!
- 5 October 2021
2getthere’s current, second generation system operates on a 1.8km dedicated lane and features 5 stations that service two business parks and a growing residential area. The vehicles have dynamic routes and are both scheduled and on demand depending on the demand during the day. They are also wheelchair accessible. This is the only system in operation that features intersections at grade, with other traffic. The current system will be extended and replaced with six of 2getthere’s Group Rapid Transit (GRT), which will operate in mixed traffic on public roads without a warden or safety driver when completed. The new system will continue to be operated by Connexxion and the first to meet the certification criteria for the draft legislation governing the use of self-driving vehicles in the Netherlands (Experimenteerwet zelfrijdende auto).
This system solves a common current transit issue and has proven to be reliable, safe and attractive to use. The expansion on the public road will prove 2getthere's technology is ready to operate in mixed traffic.
The total budget of the project is €8.5m. Metropoolregio Rotterdam Den Haag (MRDH) contributes €600,000 per year for operations. De Verkeersonderneming contributed half of the initial investment. The other half was financed by Capelle aan den Ijssel and Connexxion.
Safety certification in collaboration with the RDW.
The system operates with proven technology. Ensuring safety while offering a reliable and attractive transit solution is the most important challenge for any system.
To date, the vehicles have carried over 8,000,000 passengers, safely and efficiently over the last 20 years. On average 2,400 passengers are transported every day. Until now, 260,000km have been travelled per vehicle at an average operational speed of 25km/h. Manual intervention from the vehicles is not possible. An operator monitors the system. The vehicle reliability system was measured to be over 99.7%. One incident occurred during testing-installation of 2nd gen vehicles in 2015. In a recent study conducted by Utrecht University it was found that 90% of respondents were positive about how easy it was to use the ParkShuttle. Reliability proved to be the most important factor: four out of five respondents said they felt the system was reliable, mainly because of its frequency and punctuality.
For mixed operations, 2getthere follows a technical roadmap to verify technological solutions. This is often done in collaboration with several research activities, but is not directly related to any system deployment.
UITP's mission to SPACE has been completed!
The SPACE Final Conference will take place on 30 September.
Also known as flocking. A collection of (automated) vehicles that travel together, actively coordinated in formation. Platoons decrease the distances between vehicles using electronic, and possibly mechanical, coupling. Platooning allows many vehicles to accelerate or brake simultaneously.
High density environment with an efficient high capacity public transport system with good capillarity and high frequencies.
Medium density environment with a good public transport system with radial connections to the city center, but lower capillarity and frequencies. This setting includes suburban cities.
Small, isolated city with an own public transport system and <100K inhabitants.
Low-density environment, small cities and villages with poor public transport services mainly connecting the villages.
The SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers) levels define the level of vehicle autonomy, or in other words, how much human intervention is still needed for an automated vehicle to operate. Currently, five SAE levels have been defined: Level 0: Automated system issues warnings and may momentarily intervene but has no sustained vehicle control. Level 1 (hands on): Driver and automatic system share vehicle control. The driver must be ready to retake full control at any time. Level 2 (hands off): The automated system takes full control of the vehicle (accelerating, braking, and steering). The driver must monitor the driving and be prepared to intervene immediately at any time if the automated system fails to respond properly. Level 3 (eyes off): The automated system takes full control of the vehicle (accelerating, braking, and steering). The driver must monitor the driving and be prepared to intervene immediately at any time if the automated system fails to respond properly. Level 4 (mind off): As level 3, but no driver attention is ever required for safety, e.g. the driver may safely go to sleep or leave the driver's seat. Level 5 (steering wheel optional): No human intervention is required at all. An example would be a robotic taxi.
Vehicle-to-everything (V2X) communication is the passing of information from a vehicle to any entity that may affect the vehicle, and vice versa.