SPACE reaches milestone with launch of high-level Reference Architecture
This new Reference Architecture is a breakthrough in speeding up the process of deploying AVs and integrate them in public transport.
- 18 June 2020
The Route 35 service, operated by Ruter, is already in operation along Akershusstranda (from town hall square to Vippetangen) in the centre of Oslo, and is currently covering an area of Oslo that had no previous public transport coverage.
Vehicles operate on a fixed schedule/route. The route covers regular roads with mixed traffic and separate cycle lanes, regular private roads without cycle lanes, a shared space with cars, pedestrians and cyclists as well as the town hall square. The main cycle route east-west in Oslo goes in parallel with the demonstration route. There is also a cruise terminal with frequent arrivals of big ships carrying up to 4000 passengers along the route. There are three stops on the route, and the shuttles drives at a maximum of 18 km/h.
There has not been any public transport coverage in the area now covered by route 35. As such the bus line will enable mobility for people in this area, and is also intended to attract visitors to Vippetangen, which is a development area targeted by the municipality. The area is located in the city centre of Oslo and has high visibility at the same time as attracting many people.
The purpose of the project is to explore how an automated vehicle can play part in the overall public transport network, how passengers, pedestrians, and in particular cyclists, interact with the vehicles and how the vehicle copes with large groups of people when the big cruise ships arrive. At the same time the focus is set on developing competencies and processes within participating organizations to enable stable operation over time and to enable new, more complex projects in the months/years to come.
AV testing is enabled through a separate legislation and is obtained through a special permit from the Directorate of Public Roads.
There is an extremely high activity level in the area, both in terms of pedestrians/cyclists, large buses in relation to cruise traffic, and through several events and construction activities.
The project is still ongoing and intends to be in operation until summer 2020. The service was launched late May 2019 with two vehicles, named Mads and Oda. In late August two more vehicles, Selma and Yonas, were added to the service. During the initial three months as much as 18000 people have travelled with the shuttles, despite the service being temporarily stopped during some periods due to local events and road construction. The number of passengers normally range 200-400 passengers per day, and the vehicles travel about 40 km each per day. The customer satisfaction is high, and no accidents have occurred so far.
The Institute of Transport Economics is evaluating the vehicle to cyclist interaction in particular and will prepare an overall report/presentation on this available later in the project.
Read more about how the new EU-funded project SHOW aims to enhance automated urban mobility!
Also known as flocking. A collection of (automated) vehicles that travel together, actively coordinated in formation. Platoons decrease the distances between vehicles using electronic, and possibly mechanical, coupling. Platooning allows many vehicles to accelerate or brake simultaneously.
High density environment with an efficient high capacity public transport system with good capillarity and high frequencies.
Medium density environment with a good public transport system with radial connections to the city center, but lower capillarity and frequencies. This setting includes suburban cities.
Small, isolated city with an own public transport system and <100K inhabitants.
Low-density environment, small cities and villages with poor public transport services mainly connecting the villages.
The SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers) levels define the level of vehicle autonomy, or in other words, how much human intervention is still needed for an automated vehicle to operate. Currently, five SAE levels have been defined: Level 0: Automated system issues warnings and may momentarily intervene but has no sustained vehicle control. Level 1 (hands on): Driver and automatic system share vehicle control. The driver must be ready to retake full control at any time. Level 2 (hands off): The automated system takes full control of the vehicle (accelerating, braking, and steering). The driver must monitor the driving and be prepared to intervene immediately at any time if the automated system fails to respond properly. Level 3 (eyes off): The automated system takes full control of the vehicle (accelerating, braking, and steering). The driver must monitor the driving and be prepared to intervene immediately at any time if the automated system fails to respond properly. Level 4 (mind off): As level 3, but no driver attention is ever required for safety, e.g. the driver may safely go to sleep or leave the driver's seat. Level 5 (steering wheel optional): No human intervention is required at all. An example would be a robotic taxi.
Vehicle-to-everything (V2X) communication is the passing of information from a vehicle to any entity that may affect the vehicle, and vice versa.