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Pilot

Vincennes Shuttle Paris

Vincennes Shuttle Paris
Location
Vincennes, France
Date
Started
Length
2 km
Project details

What

This pilot project operated by RATP is located in the Bois de Vincennes and connects Chateau de Vincennes metro station (line 1) to the Chalet de la Porte Jaune station. The shuttles operate from Fridays to Sundays, 10:00 – 20:00 and make six stops. During this test, passengers are able to travel for free between these two stations, in the company of an agent who is always on board. This trial follows a step by step process to evaluate different processes:

  • A new convoy-style (platoon) operating mode. The autonomous shuttles are connected to each other to travel very close together;
  • Interoperability: a same fleet management system to integrate different shuttle providers (EasyMile and Navya);
  • Progressive integration into the traffic. In a first sector, the shuttles run on a reserved right-of-way lane, avoiding any face-to-face contact with cars. After entering the park, they share space with pedestrians, cyclists and joggers;
  • Communication with connected traffic lights in crossroads.

Why

With this new trial, RATP, IDF Mobilités and the City of Paris are collecting feedback from travellers on the service. The objective is to prepare the operation of an autonomous bus line.

© RATP. Vincennes Shuttle Paris.

© RATP. Vincennes Shuttle Paris.

Regulatory Framework

© RATP. Vincennes Shuttle Paris - Route

Regulatory Framework

This trial follows the French regulatory framework.

Challenges

Some of the technical challenges faced include: interoperability, speed increase, V2X communication and crossroads crossing. A non-technical challenge is acceptance of the autonomous vehicle among the public.

Results & Evaluation

By the end of 2018, 35,500 passengers had been transported and a total distance of 9,300km had been covered at an average operational speed of 10km/h.

© RATP. Vincennes Shuttle Paris.

© RATP. Vincennes Shuttle Paris.

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Lexicon

7 words explained

platooning

Also known as flocking. A collection of (automated) vehicles that travel together, actively coordinated in formation. Platoons decrease the distances between vehicles using electronic, and possibly mechanical, coupling. Platooning allows many vehicles to accelerate or brake simultaneously.

urban setting

High density environment with an efficient high capacity public transport system with good capillarity and high frequencies.

suburban setting

Medium density environment with a good public transport system with radial connections to the city center, but lower capillarity and frequencies. This setting includes suburban cities.

small cities

Small, isolated city with an own public transport system and <100K inhabitants.

rural

Low-density environment, small cities and villages with poor public transport services mainly connecting the villages.

SAE level

The SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers) levels define the level of vehicle autonomy, or in other words, how much human intervention is still needed for an automated vehicle to operate. Currently, five SAE levels have been defined: Level 0: Automated system issues warnings and may momentarily intervene but has no sustained vehicle control. Level 1 (hands on): Driver and automatic system share vehicle control. The driver must be ready to retake full control at any time. Level 2 (hands off): The automated system takes full control of the vehicle (accelerating, braking, and steering). The driver must monitor the driving and be prepared to intervene immediately at any time if the automated system fails to respond properly. Level 3 (eyes off): The automated system takes full control of the vehicle (accelerating, braking, and steering). The driver must monitor the driving and be prepared to intervene immediately at any time if the automated system fails to respond properly. Level 4 (mind off): As level 3, but no driver attention is ever required for safety, e.g. the driver may safely go to sleep or leave the driver's seat. Level 5 (steering wheel optional): No human intervention is required at all. An example would be a robotic taxi.

V2X

Vehicle-to-everything (V2X) communication is the passing of information from a vehicle to any entity that may affect the vehicle, and vice versa.