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Impact assessment

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Chapter 3
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In this chapter you will find a proposed methodology for the evaluation of the introduction of fleets of shared AVs into the public transport offer. The estimated impact of the introduction of a new type of service is looked at from different angles

Customer experience

What is the public acceptance of a service of shared AVs by different user groups, including the elderly, persons with reduced mobility, children, etc.? What is the attitude towards shared modes of transport in smaller vehicles? Customer behaviour and customer needs that impact the vehicle design will also be looked at.

Impact assessment

How will the introduction of fleets of shared AVs impact the public transport cost structure and operations in terms of network redefinition (type and number of vehicles needed) and business models for new services? What changes will it bring in terms of urban space consumption and street/station redesign, energy efficiency or fleet dispatching, and customer safety? What impact will it have on human resources, meaning what new profiles will be needed, which profiles will become redundant and how will the transition be managed? What changes in the current legislative framework will be necessary?

Stakeholder engagement

How can you ensure employees and the management are on board ? How to communicate and discuss with policy decision-makers?

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Lexicon

7 words explained

platooning

Also known as flocking. A collection of (automated) vehicles that travel together, actively coordinated in formation. Platoons decrease the distances between vehicles using electronic, and possibly mechanical, coupling. Platooning allows many vehicles to accelerate or brake simultaneously.

urban setting

High density environment with an efficient high capacity public transport system with good capillarity and high frequencies.

suburban setting

Medium density environment with a good public transport system with radial connections to the city center, but lower capillarity and frequencies. This setting includes suburban cities.

small cities

Small, isolated city with an own public transport system and <100K inhabitants.

rural

Low-density environment, small cities and villages with poor public transport services mainly connecting the villages.

SAE level

The SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers) levels define the level of vehicle autonomy, or in other words, how much human intervention is still needed for an automated vehicle to operate. Currently, five SAE levels have been defined: Level 0: Automated system issues warnings and may momentarily intervene but has no sustained vehicle control. Level 1 (hands on): Driver and automatic system share vehicle control. The driver must be ready to retake full control at any time. Level 2 (hands off): The automated system takes full control of the vehicle (accelerating, braking, and steering). The driver must monitor the driving and be prepared to intervene immediately at any time if the automated system fails to respond properly. Level 3 (eyes off): The automated system takes full control of the vehicle (accelerating, braking, and steering). The driver must monitor the driving and be prepared to intervene immediately at any time if the automated system fails to respond properly. Level 4 (mind off): As level 3, but no driver attention is ever required for safety, e.g. the driver may safely go to sleep or leave the driver's seat. Level 5 (steering wheel optional): No human intervention is required at all. An example would be a robotic taxi.

V2X

Vehicle-to-everything (V2X) communication is the passing of information from a vehicle to any entity that may affect the vehicle, and vice versa.