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Practical scenarios and how to get there

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Chapter 1
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Innovation and technology developments such as automated vehicles should help cities and regions to reach the goals they set for the future. We all aim for more liveable cities that are attractive to citizens and businesses. Therefore we need to tackle environmental issues and create vibrant public spaces with better accessibility. How can automated vehicles contribute to this goal?

In this chapter we will provide you with a roadmap on how to reach the scenario where fleets of shared AVs are integrated into public transport. You will also find various use cases of AVs in urban, suburban or rural settings, categorised by the level of integration with public transport, the vehicle equipment needs and the target users.

AV scenarios in different environments

Automated road vehicles (AVs) provide many opportunities for better urban mobility services. But how AVs can best be integrated depends on the environment of the area. The SPACE project partners have defined a list of different use cases, or scenarios, to offer guidance on how to deploy AVs in environments with different densities – ranging from an urban setting, a suburban setting and small cities, to rural areas. When you filter for one of these environments in the list below, it will show you only the most relevant scenarios, which does not mean this AV scenario is not seen in other environments. The list is not exhaustive and given the ongoing changes and technological developments, it will be updated over time. The scenarios have been put on a timeline in order to underline what scenarios are already happening, which ones are under development for implementation in the near future and which ones still need some time. An important aspect to be noted is that every use case does not necessarily require a different type of vehicle and a fleet of AVs can be used for different scenarios.

For examples of automated metros in the world take a look at UITP’s Observatory of automated metros

General requirements for automated vehicles

©TUDelft

General requirements for automated vehicles

The speed and size of AVs should always be linked to the demand and local needs, and should depend on the local context and not on technological developments. The aim in the future is that all services will run on demand and with minimum level 4 of automation in order to be able to run them without a driver on board, but with accompanying staff on board when needed. Where smaller AVs are used, they can be conceived as being modular or be deployed using platooning, whenever larger capacity is required. Over time, the expected decrease in private car use will lead to larger-size vehicles serving in automated fleets.

AVs can have a dual use. Alongside transporting passengers, another important functionality of AVs is urban freight distribution. The service could be converted to urban cargo distribution at night or at planned timeslots, which would require special vehicle equipment (for example, lockers for parcel delivery).

In the SPACE project we have identified 13 use cases

Operational concepts of how AVs can be used and integrated

Happening Now Soon In the future

Happening now First/last mile feeder to public transport station
Settings:
Urban (high density) Suburban
Read more about First/last mile feeder to public transport station
Happening now Special service (campus, business park, hospital)
Settings:
Suburban
Read more about Special service (campus, business park, hospital)
Happening now Bus Rapid Transit (BRT)
Settings:
Urban (high density) Suburban
Read more about Bus Rapid Transit (BRT)
Happening now Pop-Up Shuttle transport Read more about Pop-Up Shuttle transport
Happening soon Area based service and feeder to public transport station
Settings:
Small, isolated city Rural (low density)
Read more about Area based service and feeder to public transport station
Happening soon Depot
Settings:
Urban (high density)
Read more about Depot
Happening in the future Premium shared point-to-point service
Settings:
Urban (high density) Suburban Small, isolated city Rural (low density)
Read more about Premium shared point-to-point service
Happening in the future Shared point-to-point service
Settings:
Urban (high density) Suburban Small, isolated city Rural (low density)
Read more about Shared point-to-point service
Happening in the future Local bus service
Settings:
Small, isolated city
Read more about Local bus service
Happening in the future School bus
Settings:
Small, isolated city Rural (low density)
Read more about School bus
Happening in the future Premium - Robo-taxis
Settings:
Urban (high density) Suburban Small, isolated city Rural (low density)
Read more about Premium - Robo-taxis
Happening in the future Car-sharing
Settings:
Suburban Small, isolated city Rural (low density)
Read more about Car-sharing
Happening in the future Intercity travel Read more about Intercity travel
First/last mile feeder to public transport station
Environment:
Urban (high density) Suburban
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Public transport integration

Fully integrated in public transport offer: ticket, fare, app, dispatching, control room

Vehicle needs

Mixed traffic, low-floor, ramp, space for stroller/luggage/wheelchair

Target user

Users in areas not covered by public transport core network

Description This shared service would act as a feeder service to public transport for the first/last mile. The vehicles would follow a fixed route to or from public transport stations with on-demand stops or possibly fixed stops during rush hour. The service would be operated in parallel to high capacity public transport.
Special service (campus, business park, hospital)
Environment:
Suburban
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Public transport integration

Information about the service will be integrated in the public transport information platform.

Vehicle needs

Pedestrian areas and mixed traffic, low-floor, ramp, space for stroller/luggage/wheelchair. Lockers if used for parcel delivery

Target users

Employees, clients, students, visitors, patients (depending on origin and destination of service)

Description This shared service would work as a feeder to public transport stations and provide additional service on private grounds. The vehicles would follow a schedule during morning and afternoon peaks but otherwise operate on demand. The vehicles could also deliver correspondence and small parcels.
Bus Rapid Transit (BRT)
Environment:
Urban (high density) Suburban
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Public transport integration

Fully integrated in public transport offer: ticket, fare, app, dispatching, control room

Vehicle needs

High-capacity buses, ramp

Target users

All users

Description This rapid transit bus (BRT) would follow a fixed route on a reserved lane. The shared service would have fixed stops and operate at high frequency.
Pop-Up Shuttle transport Close this panel
Public transport integration

Fully integrated in public transport offer: ticket, fare, app, dispatching, control room

Vehicle needs

Depends on the event

Target users

Participants of the event

Description This would be a temporary service which would operate only for some days/weeks during large events such as exhibitions or concerts. The vehicles would follow a fixed route.
Area based service and feeder to public transport station
Environment:
Small, isolated city Rural (low density)
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Public transport Integration

Fully integrated in public transport offer: ticket, fare, app, dispatching, control room

Vehicle needs

Mixed traffic, low-floor, ramp, space for stroller/luggage/wheelchair

Target user

Users in areas not covered by public transport core network

Description This shared service would be a proximity and area-based service with dynamic routing and on demand stops. It would also act as feeder to high capacity public transport.
Depot
Environment:
Urban (high density)
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Description This scenario describes automated and optimised fleet management in bus or other vehicle depots mainly for parking and charging management.
Premium shared point-to-point service
Environment:
Urban (high density) Suburban Small, isolated city Rural (low density)
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Public transport integration

Fully integrated in public transport offer: ticket, app, dispatching, control room, higher fare

Vehicle needs

Mixed traffic, comfortable vehicles, no standing, accompanying person onboard, low-floor, ramp, space for stroller/luggage/wheelchair, special equipment according to target user

Target user

Business customers, children

Description This would be a premium shared, on-demand, point-to-point service with dynamic routing. The vehicles would be operated during extended hours.
Shared point-to-point service
Environment:
Urban (high density) Suburban Small, isolated city Rural (low density)
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Public transport integration

Fully integrated in public transport offer: ticket, fare, app, dispatching, control room

Vehicle needs

Accompanying person onboard, low-floor, ramp, space for stroller/luggage/wheelchair

Target user

All users

Description This would be a shared, on-demand, point-to-point service with dynamic routing when or where demand is low. The service would have extended operational times.
Local bus service
Environment:
Small, isolated city
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Operational needs

Ticketing, app, dispatching, control room, maintenance

Vehicle needs

Mixed traffic, low-floor, ramp, space for stroller/luggage/wheelchair

Target user

All inhabitants

Description This is a local bus service which would replace local public transport in small cities. This would be an on-demand shared fleet based service with dynamic routing and operational 24 hours a day.
School bus
Environment:
Small, isolated city Rural (low density)
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Public transport integration

No integration unless part of contract

Vehicle needs

Mixed traffic, larger capacity, access for PRM

Target users

Pupils, students

Description This point-to-point service would follow a fixed route on a fixed schedule to bring children to school.
Premium - Robo-taxis
Environment:
Urban (high density) Suburban Small, isolated city Rural (low density)
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Public transport integration

Fully integrated in public transport offer: access, app, dispatching, control room

Vehicle needs

Vehicle designed for high comfort, equipped with premium facilities like WiFi. Geofenced covering a defined area

Target user

Family, private groups, business customers

Description This point-to-point, on demand, premium service would be available for private use and sequential sharing.
Car-sharing
Environment:
Suburban Small, isolated city Rural (low density)
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Public transport integration

Fully integrated in public transport offer : access, app, dispatching, control room

Vehicle needs

High comfort, SEA level 4 if limited to a certain area, outside the vehicle would need to drive manually or would need SEA level 5 automation

Target user

Family, private group, business customers

Description This service would work as an on-demand, sequentially shared private service with dynamic routing. It will be possible to reserve the vehicle for a certain period of time during its extended operational hours.
Intercity travel Close this panel
Public transport integration

Fully integrated in public transport offer :ticket, app, dispatching, control room

Vehicle needs

High-capacity buses, ramp

Target users

All users

Description This service will provide long distance connections between villages or cities following fixed routes on highways.

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Lexicon

7 words explained

platooning

Also known as flocking. A collection of (automated) vehicles that travel together, actively coordinated in formation. Platoons decrease the distances between vehicles using electronic, and possibly mechanical, coupling. Platooning allows many vehicles to accelerate or brake simultaneously.

urban setting

High density environment with an efficient high capacity public transport system with good capillarity and high frequencies.

suburban setting

Medium density environment with a good public transport system with radial connections to the city center, but lower capillarity and frequencies. This setting includes suburban cities.

small cities

Small, isolated city with an own public transport system and <100K inhabitants.

rural

Low-density environment, small cities and villages with poor public transport services mainly connecting the villages.

SAE level

The SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers) levels define the level of vehicle autonomy, or in other words, how much human intervention is still needed for an automated vehicle to operate. Currently, five SAE levels have been defined: Level 0: Automated system issues warnings and may momentarily intervene but has no sustained vehicle control. Level 1 (hands on): Driver and automatic system share vehicle control. The driver must be ready to retake full control at any time. Level 2 (hands off): The automated system takes full control of the vehicle (accelerating, braking, and steering). The driver must monitor the driving and be prepared to intervene immediately at any time if the automated system fails to respond properly. Level 3 (eyes off): The automated system takes full control of the vehicle (accelerating, braking, and steering). The driver must monitor the driving and be prepared to intervene immediately at any time if the automated system fails to respond properly. Level 4 (mind off): As level 3, but no driver attention is ever required for safety, e.g. the driver may safely go to sleep or leave the driver's seat. Level 5 (steering wheel optional): No human intervention is required at all. An example would be a robotic taxi.

V2X

Vehicle-to-everything (V2X) communication is the passing of information from a vehicle to any entity that may affect the vehicle, and vice versa.